Program Flea Control (active ingredient: Lufenuron) - Information about Lufenuron Flea Control Pills, Suspensions and Injectable Flea Products.



This page contains general information about ProgramĀ® flea control products that are commonly prescribed by veterinarians to control fleas in households. This page contains information on how Lufenuron (the active ingredient of Program flea treatment) works; the flea control products containing Lufenuron and how to use them along with information on the safety and efficacy of the product.

Important note: I have researched and written this page to provide information on Lufenuron from a veterinary perspective. I am not paid to promote Program flea control (the trading name of Lufenuron in Australia) as a flea treatment, although I have used the product in practice and have found that it acts well as an insect growth inhibitor (the function for which it was designed).



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Program Flea Control (Lufenuron) - Contents:

1) What is the active ingredient of Program flea treatment?

2) What does Program do to fleas? How does the Lufenuron work?

3) Does Program Lufenuron kill adult fleas?

4) Lufenuron-based flea control products and how to use them (includes information on storage and dosing):
4a) Monthly Program flea control pills for dogs.
4b) Monthly oral Program flea control for cats.
4c) 6-monthly Program injectable suspension for cats (good for cats who won't take oral medications) - product not available in Australia.

5) How is it that Program flea treatment can maintain its effect with only monthly or six-monthly (for injectable) dosing?

6) What age can dogs and cats start taking Program?

7) Can Program Lufenuron be used on other species besides the dog and cat?

8) Can Program Lufenuron be used on pregnant or lactating animals?

9) Lufenuron safety and side effects - How safe is Program?

10) Is Program flea treatment useful in dogs and cats suffering Flea Allergy Dermatitis (FAD)?



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1) What is the active ingredient of Program Flea Treatment?

The active ingredient in Program flea control products is a lipophilic chemical compound called Lufenuron. It is classified as an insect development inhibitor, rather than an adulticidal flea killer, and has the inofficial synonym: CGA-184699 (IS: Ciba-Geigy).

Lufenuron as it occurs in Program flea treatment is white in colour (tending to yellow in the feline oral suspension form of the product). It is odorless, non-flammable, non-volatile and non-corrosive. It is chemically stable under normal conditions of storage and is not thought to be incompatible when in contact with other materials.

Lufenuron sometimes appears on its own in products (e.g. Program flea control products), but sometimes it is present in combination with other active ingredients to increase the spectrum of parasite kill. In Australia, Lufenuron is combined with Milbemycin oxime in the Novartis product: "SentinelĀ®" for the purposes of controlling fleas (flea development inhibitor effect) and various parasitic worms, including heartworm.

Links to the Program Lufenuron MSDS sheets are found at the end of this page.



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2) What does Program flea control do to fleas? How does the Lufenuron work?

The following information on the effect of Lufenuron pertains mainly to cat and dog flea species (Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis). Most of the studies into Lufenuron that I could find were performed on Ctenocephalides fleas (probably because these are a common nuisance flea species and probably because they are found on the types of animal hosts that Novartis has targeted with this particular flea control product range). Consequently, I can not say for sure whether or not the product will have the same effect on rabbit stickfast fleas, poultry fleas or other kinds of fleas. I imagine that it might (after all, other fleas drink blood too), but can give no guarantees.

Program flea control products are administered to dogs and cats orally or via injection. The Lufenuron present in the Program flea control product enters the treated animal's bloodstream and circulates with the blood. Adult fleas ingest the Lufenuron medication when they drink the blood of the medicated dog or cat.

The Lufenuron does not kill the adult flea, but instead enters the flea's eggs where it acts to impede and inhibit the proper synthesis and deposition of chitin in the developing larval fleas (this failure of chitin synthesis is theorised to occur through the inhibition of an enzyme called serine protease). Chitin is an important structural component of a larval flea's shell (cuticle), both within the egg and also when the larval flea enters the outside world. Chitin helps to give the outer shell of the larval flea its strength and its water-fast properties.

In a 1998 study published in the Journal of Medical Entomology, the larvae of Lufenuron-treated parent fleas were examined. Electron microscopy revealed that the cuticles of these larvae, both within the egg and without (in the case of those few larvae that managed to hatch from their eggs alive), were badly formed with great disturbance to the normal alignment of the chitin microfibrils present within their cuticle structure. This resulted in a weak outer cuticle (outermost shell covering the flea larva's epidermis or skin) that was very prone to splitting apart when the activity and movement of the flea larvae increased just prior to hatching. When the wriggling larvae suffered splits in their water-tight cuticle, they died from bleeding (loss of hemolymph) and desiccation within the egg. Thus the fleas eggs didn't hatch.

A follow-up 1999 study, also published in the Journal of Medical Entomology, further elaborated on the nature of the damage (disintegration) suffered to the flea larva's epidermis by Lufenuron and described the resultant malformation and failure of synthesis of the flea larva's outer cuticle. The abstract ends by saying: "Larval hatching was prevented by ruptures in the cuticle, which opened during eclosion (definition - "hatching from the egg") resulting in the loss of hemolymph and desiccation of the larva. Evidently, tearing of the cuticle was caused by abnormal formation of the procuticle that was not strong enough to withstand the cuticular expansion and muscular movement of the larva within the egg shell."

Sometimes the treated flea larvae did manage to survive the hatching process and enter the outside world. The 1998 study found that these Lufenuron-affected larvae all died during their first molt. In these cases, it was discovered that while these hatched larvae often had a fairly normal-looking endocuticle, they were simply unable to digest their old cuticle and produce new cuticle during their first moult. This resulted in desiccation (drying-out) and death. In these cases, the scientists found that the epidermal cells of the larval fleas were degenerate and, therefore, incapable of exuding the moulting fluid required to loosen and dislodge the first cuticle (enabling it to be shed). The epidermal (skin) cells were also too damaged to secrete the chitin needed for the second shell, resulting in failure of formation of the second shell (cuticle).

Author's note: In case you didn't know, an insect's body is covered with a rigid, water-tight shell (cuticle). As the insect or insect larva grows, this rigid outer shell is unable to stretch to accommodate the insect's increase in size. The insect therefore has to periodically shed or digest the old shell and create a new, firm, water-tight shell as it grows. This process is called moulting and it requires the synthesis of new chitin to give strength and structure to the new shell.

A 1991 study published in the same journal also found that there was no effect on adult fleas, but that the development of the next generation of fleas was greatly inhibited. The scientists found that most of the eggs didn't hatch and that those larvae that did soon died (probably during the first moult). Interestingly, the study found that in the first 2 weeks after treatment (the first two weeks after the cat host had received the Program Lufenuron), most of the flea larvae succumbed within the egg, however, as time passed, more of the flea eggs hatched out (the larvae then died during the first molt). It would seem that the particular effect of the Lufenuron is somewhat affected by the dosage the female flea takes up (greater in the first 2 weeks of treatment) with greater doses increasing the chance of the flea larvae dying within the egg.

The 1991 study found good control of flea eggs and larvae for 44 days after the cat was dosed. Thus, the monthly dosing regimen recommended for Program Flea Control should be effective.



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3) Does Program Lufenuron kill adult fleas?

No. Program Flea Control with Lufenuron as the active ingredient does not kill adult fleas.

A 1991 study published by the Journal of Medical Entomology, confirmed this. Lufenuron was given to cats and no effect was noted in the adult Ctenocephalides fleas feeding off the flea treated cats. The eggs and larvae produced by these fleas, however, suffered huge mortality (failure of hatching and death of hatched larvae during the first molt).

From a treatment perspective, it is important for owners to understand this. If you give your pet Program Flea Control, you should not expect to see dead fleas laying around the place. The product simply doesn't kill adult fleas and failure to see dead fleas is therefore not a suggestion that the product is not working.

If you continue to use Program Flea Treatment (Lufenuron) monthly and for long enough, however, you will start to see adult fleas disappear significantly from your home as the flea life cycle becomes crippled (no viable eggs or larvae coming out of Lufenuron-affected adult fleas). Failure of egg hatching and larval development eventually results in no adult fleas hatching out of the environment and thus flea control is eventually achieved.

A 2002 study published by the Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, showed this. Dogs and cats in a flea-introduced environment were given Program flea control on a monthly basis and at the doses recommended by the Novartis Company (the doses that the Program flea control packet recommends). By the end of the study (day 91 after the Program flea treatment was first given), adult flea populations were observed to be absent to 'very low'. It should be said that the environment that was used in this study possibly didn't have a well-established flea population (i.e. an environment full of long-lasting flea cocoons) prior to the study starting. In environments with a heavy flea burden already present, adult fleas will continue to hatch from cocoons for up to a year or more and so, although the Program flea control will be most effective at stopping these newly emerged fleas from laying viable eggs, you will still keep seeing the odd adult flea running across your pet for many months (until all the cocoons already present in the carpet have hatched out or dessicated).



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4) Lufenuron-based Flea Products and how to use them (includes information on storage and dosing):

Novartis has created three types of Program flea control products for cats and dogs. For dogs, there are Program flea control pills, an oral tablet form of flea control that is given monthly. For cats, there is a monthly Program flea control suspension that cats will take orally and, for the cat that hates oral medications, an injectable Lufenuron suspension which only needs to be given every six months.


4a) Monthly Program Flea Control Pills for Dogs.

Lufenuron flea control pills are given monthly to dogs over 6 weeks of age. Dogs are dosed with Lufenuron at a dosage of 10mg/kg orally once a month (every 30 days).

Program Tablets for Extra-small Dogs - each monthly tablet contains 23.1 mg of lufenuron for dogs to 2.3kg weight.
Program Tablets for Small Dogs - each monthly tablet contains 67.8mg of lufenuron for dogs 2.3kg to 6.7kg weight.
Program Tablets for Medium Dogs - each monthly tablet contains 204.9mg of lufenuron for dogs 6.8kg to 20kg weight.
Program Tablets for Large Dogs - each monthly tablet contains 409.8mg of lufenuron for dogs 21kg to 40kg weight.

The Program flea control pills are available in packs of 6.

You must purchase tablets that are correct for the weight of your dog. Do not split big-dog tablets to give them to smaller dogs.

Only about 40% of any oral dose is absorbed into the dog's system (the rest is lost in the feces). For maximum oral absorption (best effect), tablets should be given with the dog's meal or immediately afterwards (within 30 minutes). If the meal is a bit fatty then uptake of the Lufenuron flea control medicine will be maximised. This is because the drug is lipophilic (meaning that it is attracted to and binds with fat). Lufenuron absorbs into the fat of the meal and from there into the dog's body by normal fat digestion mechanisms.

All pets in the household should be treated at the same time with Program flea control products.

Treatment should begin in Late Winter or Early Spring at the start of the flea season. Treatment can, however, start anytime fleas are noticed on our canine friends. Some people choose to give Lufenuron year-round, even if no fleas are observed. If fleas are a real problem (particularly in dogs with flea allergies), then it may be a good idea to include a flea control product that eliminates adult fleas into your flea control regimen to achieve a fast knock-down of adult, biting fleas. Treating the environment for fleas is also beneficial.

Tablets should be stored at room temp - 15-30C. The product comes with a long expiration time - 4 years after manufacture for the Program flea control pills in dogs.

http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Tablets_for_Dogs_6-Tablet_LEAFLET.pdf



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4b) Monthly Oral Program Flea Control for Cats.

Lufenuron flea control suspension is given monthly to cats over 6 weeks of age. Cats are dosed with Lufenuron at a dosage of 30mg/kg (higher dose than the dog) orally once a month (every 30 days).

Program Oral Suspension for Small Cats - each monthly dose contains 133 mg of lufenuron for cats to 4.5kg weight.
Program Oral Suspension for Large Cats - each monthly dose contains 266 mg of lufenuron for cats 4.5+kg to 9kg weight.

The Program flea control suspension doses are available in packs of 6.

Much of the oral dose of Lufenuron is not absorbed into the cat's body (lost into the feces) and some of that which is absorbed is immediately excreted by the bile and therefore also lost into the cat's feces. Thus the dose rate of oral Lufenuron for cats is higher than the oral dose for dogs.



For maximum oral absorption (best effect), the suspension should be given with the cat's meal or immediately afterwards (within 30 minutes). If the meal is a bit fatty then uptake of the Lufenuron flea control medicine will be maximised. This is because the drug is lipophilic (meaning that it is attracted to and binds with fat). Lufenuron absorbs into the fat of the meal and from there into the feline body by normal fat digestion mechanisms.

All pets in the household should be treated at the same time with Program flea control products.

Treatment should begin in Late Winter or Early Spring at the start of the flea season. Treatment can, however, start anytime fleas are noticed on our feline friends. Some people choose to give Lufenuron year-round, even if no fleas are observed. If fleas are a real problem (particularly in cats with flea allergies), then it may be a good idea to include a flea control product that eliminates adult fleas into your flea control regimen to achieve a fast knock-down of adult, biting fleas. Treating the environment for fleas is also beneficial.

The suspension should be stored at room temp - 15-30C. The product comes with a long expiration time - 3 years after manufacture for the feline Program flea control suspension.

http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Oral_Suspension_Large_Cats_LEAFLET.pdf



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4c) 6-monthly Program Injectable Suspension for Cats (good for cats who won't take oral medications).

Lufenuron flea control injection is given 6-monthly to cats. Cats are dosed with injectable Lufenuron at a dosage of 10mg/kg. The injection is a subcutaneous injection.

Program 40 Injectable Suspension for Cats - each 6-monthly dose contains 40 mg of lufenuron for cats to 4kg weight.
Program 80 Injectable Suspension for Cats - each 6-monthly dose contains 80 mg of lufenuron for cats of 4+kg - 8kg weight.

The Program flea control injection does not need to be purchased by pet owners. Your vet can give the injection every 6 months in the vet clinic. The product must be shaken well before use and all used needles should be placed safely into a 'sharps' bin.

It takes about 2-3 weeks for Lufenuron to attain the correct concentration in cats following the injection.

All pets in the household should be treated at the same time with Program flea control products.

Program flea control injection can not be used in dogs. It is a cat product only.

Treatment should begin in Late Winter or Early Spring at the start of the flea season. Treatment can, however, start anytime fleas are noticed on our feline friends. Some people choose to give Lufenuron year-round, even if no fleas are observed. If fleas are a real problem (particularly in cats with flea allergies), then it may be a good idea to include a flea control product that eliminates adult fleas into your flea control regimen to achieve a fast knock-down of adult, biting fleas. Treating the environment for fleas is also beneficial.

http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Cats_2_Syringe_Packs_LEAFLET.pdf

A 1997 study published in the American Journal of Veterinary Research showed that "a single dose of the ... injectable formulation of lufenuron should control flea populations in cats for up to 26 weeks, even among cats that are periodically reinfested with fleas." The study showed >90% effectiveness by 5 weeks following treatment, reaching >98% by 13 weeks. Re-introduced flea populations at weeks 19 and 26 were well controlled, with some control still present in fleas reintroduced at week 36, but not week 49.



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5) How Is It That Program Flea Treatment Can Maintain its Effect With Only Monthly or Six-Monthly (for injectable) Dosing?

Program's Lufenuron is a chemical with lipophilic properties, which is another way of saying that it binds well with fat. When Lufenuron is taken into the body of a dog or cat (by oral or injectable means), it becomes attracted to and stored in the fat cells of the animal's body. As the Lufenuron present in the animal's bloodstream depletes (either through flea consumption or through other bodily excretion pathways), the drug stored in the fat cells steadily leaches back into the animal's blood stream over time. It takes a good 40 or so days for an oral dose of Lufenuron flea control to be completely expelled from the animal's fat stores and thereby rendered ineffective against fleas. The flea control effect of Lufenuron is therefore able to continue for the full month between oral doses. With the injectable product, more of the drug enters the body (the product is not lost to the feces as much of the oral dose is) and so more is taken up into the fat cells, ensuring a longer leeching process and thus a longer duration of effect (6 months).





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6) What age can dogs and cats start taking Program?

Dogs and cats over 6 weeks of age can be treated with Program flea treatment (i.e. weaned puppies and kittens).





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7) Can Program Lufenuron be used on other species besides the Dog and Cat?

Program flea control products are registered for use in dogs and cats only. Lufenuron can be given to rabbits, but the use is off-label and can not be in any way guaranteed (see your vet for information and doses).

Toxicity studies performed on Lufenuron have found the chemical to be toxic to small aquatic organisms (e.g. arthropods). For this reason, care must be taken to ensure that Lufenuron does not contaminate water supplies.

Toxicity studies have found Lufenuron flea control to be "practically non-toxic to fish, birds and adult bees."



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8) Can Program Lufenuron be used on Pregnant or Lactating Animals?

Tests on laboratory animals and cell cultures have determined that the chemical, Lufenuron (Program flea control) does not cause mutations, cancer, fetal malformations or any other reproductive effects. It should therefore be safe to use in pregnant animals and animals intended for breeding (see MSDS publications).

Additionally, even though Lufenuron accumulates within the fat of milk, it has not been found to have any negative effect on nursing puppies and kittens.



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9) Lufenuron Safety and Side Effects - How Safe is Program?

Adverse effects are considered to be quite rare with Program flea control medications. Those that occur mostly take on the form of a mild gut upset or an allergic reaction (which can happen in individuals with any medication). Known side effects include: vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy (sleepiness), depression and itching, redness and rashes of the skin (only one or a combination of these may present in the one individual).

Cats may sometimes develop a lump at the site of injection, if having the injectable product. This lump will generally resolve in a couple of weeks.

If you accidentally overdose your dog or cat, you should talk to your vet about it. It is important to remember, however, that when the early studies were being done on dogs and cats, they gave some 30x the normal dose of Lufenuron to puppies and some 17x the usual dose to cats and didn't record any significant or long-term effects.

Studies in rats and mice showed that the LD50 for oral Lufenuron is greater than 5000 mg/kg (in these species), which is a monster dose. An LD50 is the dose that will kill half of the study population. When you consider that Program flea treatment pills and suspensions are only dosed at 10mg/kg and 30mg/kg respectively, there is little chance you'd ever give enough of an accidental overdose to a pet to cause death (unless the pet had a severe anaphylactic reaction of some kind).

The MSDS considers Lufenuron to be non-irritant to skin or eyes (rabbit studies) and of low toxicity when given orally, inhaled or applied dermally. Guinea pig studies found that it was non-sensitising (i.e. animals didn't start to react to it with repeated use).

Tests on laboratory animals and cell cultures have determined that the chemical, Lufenuron (Program flea control) does not cause mutations, cancer, fetal malformations or any other reproductive effects. It should therefore be safe to use in pregnant animals and animals intended for breeding (see MSDS publications).

Additionally, even though Lufenuron accumulates within the fat of milk, it has not been found to have any negative effect on nursing puppies and kittens.

Toxicity studies performed on Lufenuron have found the chemical to be toxic to small aquatic organisms (e.g. arthropods). For this reason, care must be taken to ensure that Lufenuron does not contaminate water supplies.

Toxicity studies have found Lufenuron flea control to be "practically non-toxic to fish, birds and adult bees."

Be aware that there is the risk of "needle-stick" injury when using the injectable Program flea control product in cats. Discarded needles should always be safely disposed of in a designated "sharps" container.



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10) Is Program flea treatment useful in dogs and cats suffering Flea Allergy Dermatitis (FAD)?

Animals with flea allergy dermatitis are allergically sensitized to fleas such that they have a severe skin reaction (itching, scratching, rashing) each time a flea bites them. In such animals, the immune system is reacting inappropriately and extremely to elements (antigens) that are present in the flea's saliva. It can take a single flea bite to set a flea allergic animal off on a path of scratching (you might not even see any fleas on the animal - the flea has simply jumped on, bitten and then jumped off again, leaving the animal to itch away).

The issue with Program flea control (Lufenuron) is that it relies on the adult fleas feeding in order to exert its effect on the next generation of fleas. It will not kill the adult fleas and, more importantly, it will not reduce or limit adult flea feeding times (which is where allergic sensitization occurs - when the animal is exposed to the flea's saliva). Thus, it will not go a huge way towards helping cure flea allergic dermatitis (at least in the first few months when adult fleas are still about and feeding off the allergic pet - see next paragraph).

If you continue to use Program Flea Treatment (Lufenuron) monthly and for long enough, however, you will start to see adult fleas disappear significantly from your home as the flea life cycle becomes crippled (no viable eggs or larvae coming out of Lufenuron-affected adult fleas). Failure of egg hatching and larval development eventually results in no adult fleas hatching out of the environment and thus flea control is eventually achieved. With no fleas about, the animal with flea allergic dermatitis will improve and perhaps even resolve significantly.

A 2002 study published by the Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, showed this. Dogs and cats in a flea-introduced environment were given Program flea control on a monthly basis and at the doses recommended by the Novartis Company (the doses that the Program packet recommends). By the end of the study (day 91 after the Program flea treatment was first given), adult flea populations were observed to be absent to 'very low'. It should be said that the environment that was used in this study possibly didn't have a well-established flea population (i.e. an environment full of long-lasting flea cocoons) prior to the study starting. In environments with a heavy flea burden already present, adult fleas will continue to hatch from cocoons for up to a year or more and so, although the Program flea control will be most effective at stopping these newly emerged fleas from laying viable eggs, you will still keep seeing the odd adult flea running across your pet for many months (until all the cocoons already present in the carpet have hatched out or dessicated).

Program flea control certainly has a role to play in getting rid of flea populations and ending flea allergy reactions, however, during the first few months at least, owners of flea allergic animals should also apply a flea control product that kills adult fleas quickly and reduces their feeding times.

Do be aware, however, that Program flea treatment will not prevent the dog or cat from catching fleas whenever it enters a flea infested environment (e.g. pound, grooming salon, vet clinic, dog park, flea infested household) or plays with flea carrying animals. These fleas will leap onto your pet and bite it, starting the scratching all over again. In animals with flea allergy dermatitis, you really want to prevent this flea bite from occurring (or at least limit the duration of flea feeding) and so you should make sure to put a 'fast-kill' adulticide flea control product on your allergic pet if it is to leave your freshly-cleaned home.



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Program flea control product links:

To go from this Program flea treatment page to my detailed Flea Control Page, click here.

To go from this Program Lufenuron page to the Flea Pictures page, click here.

Novartis Program Product Sheets:
http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Tablets_for_Dogs_6-Tablet_LEAFLET.pdf
http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Oral_Suspension_Large_Cats_LEAFLET.pdf
http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Cats_2_Syringe_Packs_LEAFLET.pdf

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Program Flea Control Products:
http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Small_Dogs_MSDS.pdf
http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Medium_Dogs_MSDS.pdf
http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Large_Dogs_MSDS.pdf
http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Small_Cats_MSDS.pdf
http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Large_Cats_MSDS.pdf
http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_80_Injectable_Suspension_for_Cats_MSDS.pdf



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Program Flea Control References and Suggested Reading:

1) Arthropods. In Bowman DD, Lynn RC, Eberhard ML editors: Parasitology for Veterinarians, USA, 2003, Elsevier Science.

2) External Infestations - Small Animals. In Wroth O, editor: MIMS IVS Annual. St Leonards, 2001, Havas MediMedia.

3) Novartis web publications:
3a) http://www.ah.novartis.com/products/en/program_tablets_dog.shtml
3b) http://www.ah.novartis.com/products/en/program_injectable_cat.shtml
3c) http://ah.novartis.com.au/pethealth_products/program_cat.html/section/473
3d) http://www.ah.novartis.com/products/en/program_suspension_cat.shtml
3e) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Small_Dogs_MSDS.pdf
3f) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Medium_Dogs_MSDS.pdf
3g) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Large_Dogs_MSDS.pdf
3h) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Tablets_for_Dogs_6-Tablet_LEAFLET.pdf
3i) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_80_Injectable_Suspension_for_Cats_MSDS.pdf
3j) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Cats_2_Syringe_Packs_LEAFLET.pdf
3k) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Small_Cats_MSDS.pdf
3l) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Large_Cats_MSDS.pdf
3m) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Oral_Suspension_Large_Cats_LEAFLET.pdf

4) Fahmy MM, el-Dien NM. Control of Ctenocephalides felis on dogs and cats using the insect growth regulator (or chitin synthesis inhibitor) lufenuron Program, in Egypt. In: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology,2002 Apr;32(1):99-108.

5) Dean SR et al. Mode of action of lufenuron on larval cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). In: Journal of Medical Entomology, 1998 Sep;35(5):720-4.

6) Meola RW et al. Effect of lufenuron on chorionic and cuticular structure of unhatched larval Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). In: Journal of Medical Entomology, 1999 Jan;36(1):92-100.

7) Hink WF et al. Effect of an experimental systemic compound, CGA-184699, on life stages of the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). In: Journal of Medical Entomology, 1991 May;28(3):424-7.

8) Franc M, Cadiergues MC. Use of injectable lufenuron for treatment of infestations of Ctenocephalides felis in cats. In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, 1997 Feb;58(2):140-2.

9) http://www.drugs.com/international/lufenuron.html

10) Lufenuron. In Plumb DC, Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook, 5th ed. USA, 2005, Blackwell Publishing.



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Pet Informed is not in any way affiliated with any of the companies whose productsappear in images or information contained within this article. Any images, taken by Pet Informed, are only used in order to illustrate certain points being made in the article. Pet Informed receives no commercial or reputational benefit from any of these companiesfor mentioning their products and can not make any guarantees or claims, either positive or negative, about these companies' products, customer service or business practices. Pet Informed can not and will not take any responsibility for any death, damage, illness, injury or loss of reputation and businessor for any environmental damage that occurs should you choose to use one of the mentioned products on your pets, poultry or livestock (commercial or otherwise) or indoors or outdoors environment. Do your homework and research all flea control products carefully before using any flea products on your animalsor their environments.

Copyright February 11, 2012, Dr. O'Meara, www.pet-informed-veterinary-advice-online.com.

Sentinel and Program are registered trademarks of Novartis Animal Health Australasia Pty Ltd.


Please note: the aforementioned flea prevention, flea control and flea treatmentguidelines and information on the flea life cycle are general information and recommendations only. The information provided is based on published information and on recommendations made available from the drug companies themselves; relevant veterinary literatureand publications and my own experience as a practicing veterinarian.The advice given is appropriate to the vast majority of pet owners, however, giventhe large range of flea medication types and flea prevention and control protocols now available, owners should take it upon themselves to ask their own veterinarian what treatment and flea prevention schedules s/he is using so asto be certain what to do. Owners with specific circumstances (high flea infestationburdens in their pet's environment, pregnant bitches and queens, very young puppies and kittens,flea infested ferrets, flea infested rabbits, dog, cat and rabbit breeders, livestock and poultryproducers, multiple-dog and cat environments, animals with severe flea allergy dermatitis, animals on immune-suppressant medicines, animals with immunosuppressant diseases or conditions, owners of sick anddebilitated animals etc. etc.) should ask their vet what the safest and most effective flea protocol is for their situation.

Please note: the scientific flea names mentioned in this fleas life cycle article are only current asof the date of this web-page's copyright date. Parasite scientific names are constantly beingreviewed and changed as new scientific information becomes available and names that are currentnow may alter in the future.