Flea control for Kittens - A Guide to Treating Fleas on Kittens.



There are a range of flea control products available for treating fleas on kittens. This page provides a basic overview of the flea control products available for the different kitten age groups and is supplementary to my more detailed pages on individual flea control products (e.g. Program, Capstar, Advantage, Revolution) and my very detailed page on flea control and prevention. I recommend you read my flea control page if your kittens have a flea problem as just treating the kittens themselves may not be enough (you may have to treat the home environment and other pets in the household if you are to completely eradicate your house flea problem).

This 'treating fleas on kittens' page features only the safest and most effective of the commercially-available flea control products marketed for use in felines. I am not paid by any drug company to promote any of the flea control products mentioned below. I just know them to be safe and, for the most part, effective when used correctly and according to label directions.

Be aware that my site is Australia-based so certain overseas product formulations may not be mentioned even if they are wonderful at treating fleas on kittens.

In the interest of providing you with safe, effective flea control, you will not find mention of flea collars, flea rinses, flea soaps, flea powders or flea shampoos on this 'fleas on kittens' page. Whilst certain individual brands may be quite effective at killing fleas on kittens and providing flea prevention (when used correctly), some products may provide incomplete and non-continuous flea control (i.e. they may only kill fleas during the wash, but not in the days afterwards, necessitating frequent, repeated treatment) and some may contain ingredients that are highly toxic to cats and kittens (accidental, incorrect use of a dog flea collar on a cat, for example, could result in the paralysis and death of the cat). These products are also easily misused resulting in, at best, poor flea control, and, at worst, toxic side effects. As a vet, I don't tend to recommend them for treating fleas on kittens.



Fleas on Kittens



Treating fleas on kittens - Contents:

Flea Control For Kittens Product 1 - Advantage flea control (active ingredient - Imidacloprid).

Flea Treatment For Kittens Product 2 - Advocate flea control (active ingredients - Imidacloprid and Moxidectin).

Flea Control For Kittens Product 3 - Frontline flea spray and Frontline Plus spot-on (active ingredient is Fipronil +/- S-methoprene).

Controlling Fleas on Kittens Product 4 - Program flea control (active ingredient - Lufenuron).

Flea Treatment For Kittens Product 5 - Revolution flea control (active ingredient - Selamectin).

Flea Control For Kittens Product 6 - Capstar flea medication (active ingredient - Nitenpyram).

Case examples - What can I treat this kitten with!?

When buying a kitten - don't bring fleas home with you.

READ LABELS CAREFULLY. Do not accidentally poison your kitten with the wrong flea control product!



Fleas on Kittens



Flea Control For Kittens Product 1 - Advantage flea control (active ingredient - Imidacloprid).

Advantage is a spot-on flea control product designed to kill adult fleas and their larvae for a full month after application.

According to the manufacturer, Advantage flea control can be used to treat fleas on kittens from the time of weaning (6 weeks) onwards. The product is given monthly as a spot-on (topical) treatment.

Advantage flea control is apparently safe to administer to kittens (tiny doses) from only a few days old, however, because kittens this age are normally still feeding on their mother, the manufacturer recommends not treating the unweaned kittens individually (since accidental overdose could potentially result in toxicity), but instead treating the mother cat (queen) only. The Advantage flea control solution will distribute from the coat of the mother to her unweaned kittens, thereby protecting them from flea infestation.

To go from this treating fleas on kittens page to my complete page on Imidacloprid (with emphasis on Advantage flea control), click here.



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Flea Treatment For Kittens Product 2 - Advocate flea control (active ingredients - Imidacloprid and Moxidectin).

Advocate flea control contains the same active ingredient as Advantage flea control: Imidacloprid. It also contains another potent antiparasitic drug (Moxidectin), which is designed to protect cats, both young and old, against a range of mites (including ear mites) and worms (including heartworms and various gastrointestinal nematodes). Advocate can be used to treat fleas on kittens from 9 weeks of age.

Advocate is a spot-on flea control product designed to kill adult fleas and their larvae for a full month after application. It is given monthly for ongoing flea control.



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Flea Control For Kittens Product 3 - Frontline flea spray and Frontline Plus spot-on (active ingredient is Fipronil +/- S-methoprene).

Frontline is a topical flea control product (applied to the coat) designed to kill adult fleas for a full month after application.

There are two fipronil-based products marketed for use against fleas on kittens. These are Frontline Plus Spot-on and Frontline Spray. Aside from killing adult fleas, the Frontline Plus spot-on also contains an insect growth inhibitor called S-methoprene which is designed to prevent flea eggs from hatching and flea larvae from developing. Depending on which product you choose, the age of the kittens that can be treated varies somewhat.

Frontline Plus Spot-on:
According to the manufacturer, Frontline Plus Spot-on flea control can be used to treat lice and fleas on kittens from 8 weeks of age onward. The product is given monthly as a spot-on (topical) treatment for the prevention of fleas on kittens and adult cats. It is also safe to use on breeding, pregnant and lactating queens (you can apply it to a queen even if she is nursing young kittens, just don't put it directly on the individual kittens - use Frontline Spray to treat the fleas on kittens instead).

Author's note: Do not use the Frontline Spot-on to treat or prevent ticks in cats. The manufacturer recommends the Frontline Spray be given at 3-weekly intervals to prevent ticks in cats (e.g. to prevent tick paralysis).



Frontline Spray:
According to the manufacturer, Frontline Spray can be used to treat fleas on kittens from 2 days of age onward. The product is given monthly to 8-weekly (the spray-on formulation is thought to exert its activity for up to 2 months in cats and 3 months in dogs) as a spray-on treatment for the prevention of fleas in cats. It is also safe to use on breeding, pregnant and lactating queens.

Although the spray-on product can be used on older kittens and adult cats, most people tend to use the spot-on product once a cat is over 8 weeks old. The spray is generally reserved for kittens under the age of 8 weeks and for cats needing tick prevention. The reason for this is that Frontline Spray can be a tad messy and unpleasant and fiddly to apply. The animal has to be coated all over with the spray product (5 separate body sites) and you have to calculate the number of sprays (dose rate) carefully and apply the product over the entire coat to the level of the skin (so that the whole animal is damp with it) and so on. It is far trickier to use than a simple, one-site, spot-on application. The product also needs to be applied in a well-ventilated area (you shouldn't breathe it in) and you need to wear gloves.

Merial (Frontline manufacturer) has a neat calculator to help you work out how much spray to put on your cat.
http://www.frontlineplus.com.au/kitten_smitten/cats_calculator.asp

Be aware that different size Frontline Spray bottles deliver a different dosage. The 100ml bottle delivers 0.5ml of flea solution per spray, whereas the 250ml and 500ml bottles deliver 1.5ml per spray. You need to work out the correct dose (number of sprays needed) based on the size of the bottle. With tiny kittens, most of my customers purchase the 100ml bottle which delivers smaller doses per spray and thus achieves more accuracy of dosing.

Merial also has a sheet on how to apply the spray - the five zones of the body that must be covered.
http://www.frontlineplus.com.au/media/pdf/fl_spray_app_guide.pdf

Another Merial guide to using Frontline Spray.
http://www.frontlineplus.com.au/kitten_smitten/cats_apply_frontline_spray.asp



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Controlling Fleas on Kittens Product 4 - Program flea control (active ingredient - Lufenuron).

Cats over 6 weeks of age can be treated with Program flea treatment (i.e. weaned kittens). Please be aware that Program (Lufenuron) is only designed to inhibit flea egg hatching and larval development in the home environment (by breaking the flea life cycle, total environmental flea control is eventually ensured). The product will not actively kill adult fleas running around on your kittens and so this product is often used in conjunction with one of the other products mentioned on this page to achieve an environmental flea control effect as well as an adult-flea-killing effect.

Program inhibits flea egg development for a full month after dosing. It is given monthly as an oral tablet to help in the control of fleas on kittens.

To go from this treating fleas on kittens page to my complete page on Program flea control, click here.



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Flea Treatment For Kittens Product 5 - Revolution flea control (active ingredient - Selamectin).

Revolution is a spot-on flea control product designed to kill adult fleas, their eggs and their larvae for a full month after application.

Revolution should only be used to treat fleas on kittens from 8 weeks of age.

The reason for this is safety. The blood-brain barrier is weaker in young animals than in juvenile and adult animals and less capable of excluding drugs like selamectin from the brain. If Revolution is given to such animals (animals under 8 weeks of age), the Selamectin active ingredient can accidentally cross into the brain of the treated baby animal, resulting in signs of toxicity. Pfizer's own literature gives an example of an underage kitten that died from the improper application of Revolution flea control: "A kitten, estimated to be 5-6 weeks old (0.3 kg), died 8.5 hours after receiving a single treatment of REVOLUTION at the recommended dosage. The kitten displayed clinical signs which included muscle spasms, salivation and neurological signs. The kitten was a stray with an unknown history and was malnourished and underweight." It should be noted that the underweight condition of the animal may have also contributed to its death, not just its age.

The manufacturer advises that the product not be used in debilitated, sick or badly underweight animals. Therefore, kittens severely debilitated by worms, malnutrition and severe flea-induced anaemia might not be best treated with this product until they are a bit stronger.

The product is considered safe to use in breeding animals that are pregnant or lactating or that are about to be bred from. You can use Revolution flea control on a queen that has unweaned (<6 weeks old) offspring nursing off her. Just don't apply the product directly to those young, unweaned animals.

Safety studies (Pfizer literature) have been done giving 6-week old kittens a topical dose of Selamectin that was 10x the dose normally given to such animals (i.e. 60mg/kg instead of 6mg/kg). No adverse effects were noted.

A 2000 study published in Veterinary Parasitology in August looked at a wide range of safety aspects associated with the use of Selamectin in cats and kittens. The study looked at topical side effects, oral side effects (mimicking an ingestion event), Selamectin use on pregnant and lactating animals, Selamectin safety in animals already infested with heartworms and so on. Signs of toxicity were not just evaluated looking at external, clinical signs of poisoning (e.g. tremors, drooling, vomiting), but animals were also assessed using blood tests, histopathological examination of internal tissues (looking for microscopic evidence of damage) and, in breeding animals, by looking at reproductive indices (e.g. litter size, fertility and so on). With regard to age, cats were dosed from 6 weeks of age (though the recommendation is to start them on Revolution from 8 weeks) and the study abstract comments: "Cats received large doses of selamectin at the beginning of the margin of safety study when they were six weeks of age and at their lowest body weight, yet displayed no clinical or pathologic evidence of toxicosis" and concludes by saying: "Selamectin is a broad-spectrum avermectin endectocide that is safe for use in cats starting at six weeks of age, including heartworm-infected cats and cats of reproducing age, when administered topically to the skin monthly at the recommended dosage to deliver at least 6mgkg."

Another 2000 article in Veterinary Parasitology examined the effectiveness and safety of Revolution flea control when used against both fleas and heartworms. Study animals were dosed with Selamectin (Revolution for pets) as per the label dosing regimen (6mg/kg topically every 30 days) for 2 months (days 0, 30 and 60). Just over 1000 animals (dogs and cats) were studied in this test, ranging from 6 weeks to 19 years of age and no serious adverse reactions were seen.

To go from this treating fleas on kittens page to my complete page on Selamectin (Revolution flea control), click here.



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Flea Control For Kittens Product 6 - Capstar flea medication (active ingredient - Nitenpyram).

If you want a super fast flea knock-down product (all fleas dead within hours), Capstar is an excellent choice. The product doesn't exert its effect for long (24-48 hours maximum), making it a less common choice for ongoing flea control, but it will take care of large populations of fleas on kittens really fast (giving time for your monthly spot-on flea treatments to take effect). You will literally start to see fleas falling off your kittens within the hour.

Do pay close attention to the weight of your kittens if thinking of using Capstar as a fast-knockdown for their fleas. Although the product directions state that a cat must be over 4 weeks of age before it can be treated with Capstar flea control pills, the manufacturer also states that treated animals (dogs or cats) must be over 2 pounds (900g) in body-weight before the pills should be given. Most kittens do not achieve 2 pounds in bodyweight until they are at least 8-9 weeks of age, so, even though the label says the tablets can be given from 4 weeks of age, you wouldn't be likely to dose kittens with Capstar flea control pills until they were around 8-9 weeks of age (and even then, only if they had attained over 900g in weight).

Basically, make sure you weigh any kitten to ensure that it is over 2 pounds or 900g in bodyweight before giving it Capstar.

Super important note: The Capstar flea control packet and information sheets state that Capstar flea control pills are "safe for use in dogs and cats, puppies and kittens 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 4 weeks of age and older." Over the years, reports by owners of adverse effects have shown that this may no longer be quite the case and Novartis, as a responsible company, has since issued an update on the safety of Capstar flea control pills. The information can be found at: http://www.capstarpet.com/pdf/Dear_Doctor.pdf

I would advise you to read it before giving your pet Capstar flea medication.

The adverse effects information contained in the above link states that serious side effects, including seizures, neurological signs and even death, are most commonly seen in animals below 2 pounds of weight and in those animals less than 8 weeks old and/or those in poor condition (e.g. thin, sickly animals).

Many of the adverse effects reported in dogs and cats following the administration of Capstar flea medication are excitatory effects including: hyperactivity, panting, nervousness, fever, vocalisation and an increased heart rate. In extreme cases, these excitatory effects have tipped over into marked gastrointestinal effects (vomiting, decreased appetite, diarrhea, salivation) and moderate to severe neurological signs (difficulty breathing, incoordination, seizures, trembling, pupil dilation), some of which have the potential to result in death (e.g. seizures). Allergic reactions have also been described, manifesting as: hypersalivation, fever, hives, swollen or puffy eyes, itching and redness. In seeming contrast, some animals have shown signs of depression and lethargy, rather than excitation, when given Capstar flea medication.

Birth defects and the loss of unborn puppies and kittens have been reported following the administration of Capstar flea medication to pregnant animals. Newborn puppies and kittens (neonates) have also been reported to die following the administration of Capstar flea medication to lactating animals. Although these effects are not guaranteed to have been caused by Capstar (many factors can cause pregnancy loss and the death of delicate neonatal animals), the company recommends exercising caution with the product in pregnant and lactating animals.

Novartis, like all responsible drug companies, wants to know about any observed side effects. Pet owners are encouraged to report suspected side effects (most drug side effects are never known about because most pet owners never report them).

If you suspect a Capstar related side effect or adverse drug event, you can call Novartis Animal Health on 1-800-637-0281 or the FDA on 1-800-FDA-VETS.

You can also report issues with Capstar flea medication online at http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/ReportaProblem/ucm055305.htm

To go from this treating fleas on kittens page to my complete page on Nitenpyram (Capstar flea control), click here.



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Case examples - What can I treat this kitten with!?

1) I just found a tiny kitten all on its own! It is only a few days old and covered in fleas. What should I use?
This is a kitten you will probably have to take to a vet first to see if it is healthy and viable and to get advice on bottle-feeding, however, with regard to the fleas, this is a job for Frontline Spray (probably the 100ml bottle). It can be used from 2 days of age. Follow the label directions carefully to ensure you dose the kitten correctly and reach all the places on the body where fleas could hide.




2) I just got given a handsome kitten straight off its mother. It's only just weaned. It has fleas though. What should I use?
Generally, kittens are weaned at around 6 weeks of age, though some people allow their kittens to stay with their mother until they are 8 weeks of age. If you are at all unsure of the birth date of your newly-weaned kitten, it is safer to assume the kitten is younger rather than older and choose a product that can be used in 6 week old kittens. Advantage spot-on would be fine as would Frontline Spray (but not Frontline Spot-on). You could also start the pet on Program flea control at this point too, since it is also safe at 6 weeks (it won't kill adult fleas though so you will still need to give the Advantage or Frontline Spray).

I wouldn't use Capstar in such a kitten until it is 900g or more in weight. Most weaned kittens aren't this heavy, even though they are more than 4 weeks old.


3) I just got given an 8 week old kitten. What should I use to prevent fleas?
Weigh the kitten. If it is over 900g and already has fleas, you can give the animal a dose of Capstar for its fast flea-kill effect and then follow up with a monthly spot-on product that kills adult fleas. Advantage spot-on would be fine as would Frontline Spray, Frontline Spot-on and Revolution (but not Advocate). You could also start the pet on Program flea control at this point too, since it is also safe from 6 weeks (it won't kill adult fleas though so you will still need to give a product that kills adult fleas.

If the kitten does not actually have fleas yet and you are just after a preventative, skip the Capstar and just give the kitten a monthly spot-on product that prevents/kills adult fleas. Advantage spot-on would be fine as would Frontline Spray, Frontline Spot-on and Revolution (but not Advocate). You could also start the pet on Program flea control at this point too.


4) What about a kitten that is 9 weeks and older?
Weigh the kitten. If it is over 900g and already has fleas, you can give the animal a dose of Capstar for its fast flea-kill effect and then follow up with a monthly spot-on product that kills adult fleas. Advantage spot-on would be fine as would Advocate, Frontline Spray, Frontline Spot-on and Revolution. You could also start the pet on Program flea control at this point too, since it is also safe from 6 weeks (it won't kill adult fleas though so you will still need to give a product that kills adult fleas).

If the kitten does not actually have fleas yet and you are just after a preventative, skip the Capstar and just give the kitten a monthly spot-on product that prevents/kills adult fleas. Advantage spot-on would be fine as would Advocate, Frontline Spray, Frontline Spot-on and Revolution. You could also start the pet on Program flea control at this point too.


5) I have a queen with nursing babies. All of them have fleas. What do I use?
If the fleas are not too severe (just the occasional one running through the coat and very minor flea dirt), you could simply apply Advantage to the mother cat's coat. The product will diffuse to her kittens and kill the fleas on them also. You would need to keep an eye on the kittens' coats though to check the fleas are actually being killed (apply Frontline Spray to the kittens if the fleas are continuing to survive on them).

Alternatively, you could apply Advantage or Frontline spot-on or Frontline Spray to the mother cat's coat and then treat the babies individually with Frontline Spray. This is certainly what I would do if the kittens were severely flea-infested.


6) I have a breeding facility. Heaps of cats of all ages and heaps of fleas. What products should I keep on hand?
Depending on how big the flea issue is, you might need to get a vet consultant out to assess the situation to determine the flea control program and flea products most applicable to your situation. I can only offer generalised information, not information specific to any one situation. You might also need to get the opinion of a pest company skilled at treating fleas, because no doubt there will be a major environmental flea burden also present which will also need to be controlled (not just the fleas on the cats).

Having said that, you would do well to stock Frontline Spray (for all the small kittens), Program flea control tablets and one or two of the monthly adult flea killing products for the older kittens and adult cats (e.g. Advantage, Revolution, Frontline Spot-on or Advocate).

All kittens would be treated with Frontline Spray.

All cats over 6 weeks of age would get Program flea control pills on a monthly basis and all cats would get a monthly spot-on adult flea killing product appropriate to the age of the cat (Advantage, Revolution, Frontline Spot-on or Advocate). Consider Revolution or Advocate if your facility has additional problems such as ear mites and intestinal worms. Frontline Plus Spot-on will also control lice if those are a problem.

If you were selling kittens at 6 weeks of age, it would be handy to have Advantage flea control on hand to treat all kittens leaving the premises for their new homes (that way the new owners wouldn't take fleas home with them and you would have happy clients). If you were selling kittens at 8 weeks of age, then Revolution or Advantage would be appropriate to this role, though Advantage in my experience is generally the less expensive of the two (not always though - so do a price check).



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When buying a kitten - don't bring fleas home with you.

One of the ways people bring fleas home to a clean, flea-free home is through the adoption or "finding" of a new kitten. Kittens often carry fleas, particularly those whose origin is unknown (e.g. if they were found in the street or wilderness) and those that come from an environment where flea populations are high and/or flea control minimal. Such places include: unregistered, backyard breeders; well-meaning friends who give you one of the kittens born on their property; pounds; kitten farms; shelters and even registered cat breeders (even licensed breeding facilities can have flea problems - fleas are invasive pests).


Before bringing the kitten home, you can perform a couple of simple steps to ensure the kitten doesn't introduce a flea infestation into your home:


If you don't need to take the kitten home immediately:
Two days before you bring the kitten home, get the person selling or giving it to you to treat it with a high quality flea control treatment, which will last a full month. Advantage flea control, Advocate (if the kitten is over 9 weeks old), Revolution flea control and Frontline Spray are all good options. The two days will give all of these medications time to kill all the fleas on the animal (and hopefully attain a >95% effectiveness). Additionally, giving the animal a dose of Lufenuron (Program) will also help to ensure that any fleas which do survive will only lay infertile eggs.

Give the kitten a good, thorough brush. This will help to remove any flea eggs the animal might be carrying in its coat prior to it getting to your home.

Maintain a good flea control regime for at least three months following the kitten's admission into your home. Advantage, Advocate (if the kitten is over 9 weeks old), Revolution flea control and Frontline Spray coupled to monthly Program flea control are all good options. This will ensure that, should any flea eggs manage to make it home on your pet's coat, the fleas which emerge will be killed off before they can establish viable populations in your home.


If you do need to take the kitten home immediately:
If the person will not hold the kitten for 2 days or you find a kitten that has to be taken home immediately, give the animal some Capstar (Nitenpyram) if it is over 900g in weight and leave the animal in a cat carrier with food and water for a few hours. Preferably, put the cat carrier somewhere unattractive to the flea lifecycle so that, should any eggs bounce into the environment, they will be easy to vacuum away. Tiled bathrooms, laundries, kitchens and concrete garages are fine so long as they are not too hot or cold for your kitten. Capstar works extremely fast to kill fleas on kittens (within a few hours all fleas should be killed).

After this, give the kitten a good, thorough brushing. Do it outside or on an easy-to-vacuum surface (e.g. kitchen floor, laundry).

Following this, you should then treat the kitten with a monthly, adult-flea killing product and also the monthly Program flea egg inhibitor. Advantage and Advocate are particularly effective in these situations since the imidacloprid works so fast to kill adult fleas (>95% effectiveness within 12 hours). To be extra safe, you could treat the kitten with the Capstar, follow that up with the Advantage (or Advocate) and then leave the kitten in the laundry or bathroom for 24 hours with food and water and a litter tray. In that time, all the adult fleas should have died and you will find it very easy to vacuum up any of the flea eggs or larvae that might have fallen to the floor.

Continue the monthly adult-flea killing product and the Program flea egg inhibitor for a few months to ensure that any fleas which do invade your home are killed before they can set up significant infestations.

Be sure to treat any other cats or dogs in your home at the same time to avoid fleas fleeing from your new kitten onto their coats.

The cat carrier the kitten came in should be taken outside and emptied and disinfected.

The floor where the cat carrier was resting should be thoroughly vacuumed to clean up any flea eggs or flea dirt that might have spilled onto the floor.



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READ LABELS CAREFULLY. Do not accidentally poison your kitten with the wrong flea control product!

When treating fleas on kittens, be sure to read all the product labels very carefully before putting them on your kitten. Some chemicals (e.g. certain permethrins and pyrethrins) are highly toxic to cats and will cause extreme neurological side effects, including death.

When treating fleas on kittens, do not use any product that says it mustn't be given to cats, even if it seems similar to a cat-approved product. For example, Bayer has a flea and tick control product called "Advantix". It contains Imidacloprid (the same anti-flea ingredient as Advantage and Advocate), but where Advantage and Advocate can be used in cats, Advantix (which contains permethrin) can not. Just because products "seem" similar does not mean they are. Advantix is for dogs only.

Do not put dog products on cats, unless it specifically states the product can be used in cats. Do not simply assume a cat can have a dog product. Cats are not "small dogs" and their ability to tolerate certain chemicals and drugs is greatly different.

When treating fleas on kittens, check the label to see if there is an age limit. Products generally tell you what age the kitten must be before they can start having the product.

When treating fleas on kittens, dose kittens properly. Do not significantly overdose or underdose them.

Be especially careful with "cheap" supermarket brand flea products when treating fleas on kittens. Flea collars, flea washes, flea rinses, flea sprays, flea shampoos and flea powders often contain pyrethrins and permethrins and many can be highly toxic to cats. If using such products, read these labels extra carefully to check they are cat and kitten safe.



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Fleas on Kittens Links:

To go from this treating fleas on kittens page to my detailed Flea Control Page, click here.

To go from this treating fleas on kittens page to my Flea Pictures page, click here.

To go from this treating fleas on kittens page to my Revolution flea control page, click here.

To go from this treating fleas on kittens page to my Capstar flea control page, click here.

To go from this treating fleas on kittens page to my Program flea control page, click here.

To go from this treating fleas on kittens page to my Advantage flea control page, click here.



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Fleas on Kittens References and Suggested Reading:

1) Pfizer web publications:
1a) https://animalhealth.pfizer.com/sites/pahweb/US/EN/Documents/Species%20Landing%20Page%20pdf/Dog/REVOLUTION_PI.pdf
1b) http://www.pfizeranimalhealth.com.au/documents/e/969/4173,Revolution.pdf
1c) http://www.pfizeranimalhealth.co.nz/sites/pfizeranimalhealth/PAH%20Document%20Library/Pfizer%20MSDS%20-%20REVOLUTION%20for%20Cats.pdf

2) Merial web publications:
2a) http://www.frontlineplus.com.au/kitten_smitten/cats_calculator.asp
2b) http://www.frontlineplus.com.au/kitten_smitten/cats_apply_frontline_spray.asp
2c) http://www.frontlineplus.com.au/media/pdf/fl_spray_app_guide.pdf

3) Bayer web publications:
3a) http://www.bayeranimal.com.au/default.aspx?Page=50&ItemId=75
3b) http://www.bayeranimal.com.au/PDFViewer/DocumentDisplayPage.aspx?CurrentDocumentID=%2bA2aUfpXGNP%2bUgcCTOKeLQ%3d%3d
3c) http://www.bayeranimal.com.au/PDFViewer/DocumentDisplayPage.aspx?CurrentDocumentID=OCqHyRh37u9Om4AajzlYMQ%3d%3d
3d) http://www.bayeranimal.com.au/PDFViewer/DocumentDisplayPage.aspx?CurrentDocumentID=XpWm37T%2bVbaj7DMSVMm8UQ%3d%3d
3e) http://www.bayeranimal.com.au/default.aspx?Page=50&ItemId=73

4) Novartis web publications:
4a) http://www.ah.novartis.com/products/en/program_injectable_cat.shtml
4b) http://ah.novartis.com.au/pethealth_products/program_cat.html/section/473
4c) http://www.ah.novartis.com/products/en/program_suspension_cat.shtml
4d) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_80_Injectable_Suspension_for_Cats_MSDS.pdf
4e) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Cats_2_Syringe_Packs_LEAFLET.pdf
4f) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Small_Cats_MSDS.pdf
4g) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Large_Cats_MSDS.pdf
4h) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Program_Oral_Suspension_Large_Cats_LEAFLET.pdf
4i) http://www.capstarpet.com/pdf/Product_Info.pdf
4j) http://ah.novartis.com.au/verve/_resources/Capstar_for_Cats_and_Small_Dogs_MSDS.pdf
4k) http://www.capstarpet.com/pdf/Dear_Doctor.pdf

5) Krautmann MJ, et al. Safety of selamectin in cats. In: Veterinary Parasitology. 2000 Aug 23;91(3-4):393-403.

6) Boy MG, et al. Efficacy and safety of selamectin against fleas and heartworms in dogs and cats presented as veterinary patients in North America. In: Veterinary Parasitology. 2000 Aug 23;91(3-4):233-50.



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Pet Informed is not in any way affiliated with any of the companies whose products appear in images or information contained within this fleas on kittens article. Any images, taken by Pet Informed, are only used in order to illustrate certain points being made in the article. Pet Informed receives no commercial or reputational benefit from any of these companies for mentioning their products in my 'fleas on kittens page' and can not make any guarantees or claims, either positive or negative, about these companies' products, customer service or business practices. Pet Informed can not and will not take any responsibility for any death, damage, illness, injury or loss of reputation and business or for any environmental damage that occurs should you choose to use one of the mentioned products on your pets, poultry or livestock (commercial or otherwise) or indoors or outdoors environment. Do your homework and research all flea control products carefully before using any flea products on your animals or their environments.

Fleas on Kittens - Copyright June 10, 2012, Dr. O'Meara, www.pet-informed-veterinary-advice-online.com.

Capstar and Program are registered trademarks of Novartis Animal Health Australasia Pty Ltd.
Revolution is a registered trademark of Pfizer Animal Health.
Advantage for Dogs and Cats, Advocate and Advantix are registered trademarks of Bayer Australia Ltd.
Frontline Plus Spot-on and Frontline Spray are registered trademarks of Merial.

Please note: the aforementioned flea prevention, flea control and flea treatment guidelines and information on treating fleas on kittens are general information and recommendations only. The 'treating fleas on kittens' information provided is based on published information and on recommendations made available from the drug companies themselves; relevant veterinary literature and publications and my own experience as a practicing veterinarian.The fleas on kittens advice given is appropriate to the vast majority of pet owners, however, given the large range of flea medication types and flea prevention and control protocols now available, owners should take it upon themselves to ask their own veterinarian what treatment and flea prevention schedules s/he is using so as to be certain what to do. Owners with specific circumstances (high flea infestation burdens in their pet's environment, pregnant bitches and queens, very young puppies and kittens, flea infested ferrets, flea infested rabbits, dog, cat and rabbit breeders, livestock and poultry producers, multiple-dog and cat environments, animals with severe flea allergy dermatitis, animals on immune-suppressant medicines, animals with immunosuppressant diseases or conditions, owners of sick and debilitated animals etc. etc.) should ask their vet what the safest and most effective flea control protocol is for their situation.

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